is an artificial replacement for any or all parts of the lower or upper extremities, it is a device that is designed to replace, as much as possible, the function or appearance of a missing limb or body part.
Characteristics of a successful prosthesis:
- Be comfortable to wear,
- Easy to put on and remove,
- Durable, and cosmetically pleasing.
- Function well mechanically and require only reasonable maintenance.
- Depends on the motivation of the individual, as none of the above characteristics matter if the patient will not wear the prosthesis
Considerations when choosing a prosthesis:
- Amputation level.
- Contour of the residual limb.
- Expected function of the prosthesis.
- Cognitive function of the patient.
- Vocation of the patient (eg, desk job vs manual labor).
- A vocational interests of the patient (ie, hobbies).
- Cosmetic importance of the prosthesis .
- Financial resources of the patient.
Prostheses (Artificial limbs) are typically manufactured using the following steps:
- Measurement of the stump.
- Measurement of the body to determine the size required for the artificial limb.
- Creation of a model of the stump.
- Formation of thermo-plastic sheet around the model of the stump – This is then used to test the fit of the prosthetic.
- Formation of permanent socket.
- Formation of plastic parts of the artificial limb –
- Different methods are used, including vacuum forming and injection molding.
- Creation of metal parts of the artificial limb using die casting.
- Assembly of entire limb.
Transfemoral Prosthetic Socket Design
- Quadrilateral Socket • Introduced in the 1950s. • Four-sided shape of the socket when viewed transversely. • Strong emphasis on individual anatomy of soft tissues and underlying bony structures. • Direct ischial bearing on a brim
- Ischial Containment Socket • Introduced in the 1980s. • Narrower in the M-L dimension to gain better control of femur and maintain its normal alignment. • Ischium contained within socket using bony lock. • Goals include increased comfort for user, and improved control of pelvis and trunk.
Lower limb prosthesis classification:
- Above knee prosthesis
- below knee prosthesis
- Through knee prosthesis
- Through hip prosthesis
- Through ankle prosthesis
upper limb prosthesis classification:
- blow elbow prosthesis
- above elbow prosthesis
- through shoulder prosthesis